Welcome to the enchanting world of Bhutanese cuisine, where tradition and taste come together in a symphony of flavors. In this culinary exploration, we delve into the heart of Bhutan's gastronomic heritage to bring you a recipe that has stood the test of time – Bhutanese Gundruk. This unique dish encapsulates the essence of Bhutanese culture, incorporating fermented greens and local spices to create a dish that is not only delicious but also a testament to the country's rich culinary tapestry.

Gundruk, a traditional dish deeply rooted in Bhutanese culture, showcases the art of fermentation that has been passed down through generations. The use of locally sourced greens, combined with a meticulous fermentation process, results in a savory and tangy delight that has become a staple in Bhutanese households.

Join us on this culinary journey as we unlock the secrets behind Bhutanese Gundruk, exploring the ingredients, techniques, and cultural significance that make it a cherished dish in the Kingdom of Bhutan. Whether you're an avid food enthusiast or a curious explorer of global cuisines, this recipe promises to transport your taste buds to the serene landscapes of Bhutan, offering a unique and unforgettable culinary experience.


  • 1 large bunch of mustard greens or radish greens (about 500g)
  • 2 tablespoons mustard oil
  • 1 tablespoon turmeric powder
  • 1 tablespoon fenugreek seeds
  • 1 tablespoon salt (or to taste)
  • 1-2 hot green chili peppers (optional, for spice)
  • Water


Selecting and Cleaning the Greens:Choose fresh and tender mustard greens or radish greens. Wash them thoroughly in cold water to remove any dirt or impurities. Trim the stems and chop the leaves into bite-sized pieces.

Wilting the Greens:Place the chopped greens in a large bowl. Sprinkle salt over them and gently massage the salt into the leaves. Allow the greens to rest for about 30 minutes. This process helps in wilting the greens and extracting excess water.

Rinsing and Draining:After 30 minutes, rinse the greens under cold water to remove excess salt. Drain them well, squeezing out any remaining water.

Sun-Drying:Spread the greens on a clean, dry surface or a clean cloth and let them sun-dry for a day. Ensure they are spread thinly to promote even drying.


1-Once the greens are dried, heat mustard oil in a pan. Add fenugreek seeds and let them splutter. Add turmeric powder and green chili peppers (if using).

2-Stir in the dried greens, coating them well with the seasoned oil mixture. Allow the greens to cool completely.

Packaging for Fermentation:Transfer the seasoned greens into a clean, airtight container or a glass jar. Press the greens down to eliminate air pockets. Seal the container tightly.

Fermentation Process:Place the sealed container in a warm and dark place for fermentation. Allow the greens to ferment for at least 5-7 days. Check periodically to ensure the greens are fermenting well.

Checking for Readiness:Once the greens have a tangy aroma and a slightly sour taste, they are ready. The texture should be slightly chewy. If needed, let them ferment for a few more days to enhance the flavor.

Storing Gundruk:Store the fermented greens in a cool, dry place. Once the desired fermentation level is achieved, you can refrigerate them to slow down the fermentation process.

Enjoying Gundruk:Bhutanese Gundruk can be used in various dishes, such as soups, stews, or simply as a side dish. Experiment with different recipes to savor the unique flavor of this traditional Bhutanese delicacy.

Experience the authentic taste of Bhutan with this homemade Gundruk recipe, capturing the essence of Bhutanese culinary heritage in every bite.

Nutritional Values

Nutritional values can vary based on specific brands and varieties of ingredients, so it's important to note that the values provided here are approximate and should be used as a general guide. Additionally, the nutritional content of some items, like mustard oil and spices, may not be significant in the final dish due to the small amounts used. Here's an estimation of the nutritional values for the listed ingredients:

Mustard Greens or Radish Greens (500g):

  • Calories: 50 kcal
  • Carbohydrates: 8g
  • Protein: 4g
  • Fiber: 5g
  • Fat: 1g
  • Vitamins and minerals: Rich in vitamins A, C, and K, as well as calcium and iron.

Benefits: Rich in vitamins A, C, and K, mustard greens provide essential nutrients for eye health, immune function, and blood clotting. They also contain fiber, which supports digestion.

Mustard Oil (2 tablespoons):

  • Calories: 240 kcal
  • Fat: 28g (of which saturated fat: 3g, monounsaturated fat: 12g, polyunsaturated fat: 13g)
  • No cholesterol
  • No sodium
  • No carbohydrates or protein

Benefits: Mustard oil is a good source of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. It contains omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which are beneficial for heart health. Additionally, it has anti-inflammatory properties.

Turmeric Powder (1 tablespoon):

  • Calories: 24 kcal
  • Carbohydrates: 4g
  • Protein: 1g
  • Fat: 1g
  • Fiber: 1g
  • Vitamins and minerals: Excellent source of curcumin, a potent anti-inflammatory compound.

Benefits: Turmeric is known for its active compound, curcumin, which has powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. It may help reduce the risk of chronic diseases and support overall well-being.

Fenugreek Seeds (1 tablespoon):

  • Calories: 35 kcal
  • Carbohydrates: 6g
  • Protein: 3g
  • Fat: 1g
  • Fiber: 3g
  • Vitamins and minerals: Rich in iron, magnesium, and manganese.

Benefits: Fenugreek seeds are rich in iron, magnesium, and manganese. They may help regulate blood sugar levels, improve digestion, and provide relief from inflammation.

Salt (1 tablespoon):

  • Calories: 0 kcal
  • Sodium: 2300mg (daily recommended intake may vary)

Benefits: While salt is essential for flavoring, moderation is key. It helps maintain electrolyte balance, nerve function, and fluid balance in the body. However, excessive salt intake may contribute to high blood pressure.

Green Chili Peppers (1-2 peppers):

  • Calories: 4 kcal
  • Carbohydrates: 1g
  • Protein: 0g
  • Fat: 0g
  • Fiber: 0g
  • Vitamins and minerals: High in vitamin C and capsaicin.

Benefits: Green chili peppers are a good source of vitamin C and capsaicin, a compound known for its metabolism-boosting and pain-relieving properties. They may also have antimicrobial effects.


  • No caloric content
  • Essential for hydration

Benefits: Water is vital for hydration and supports various bodily functions, including digestion, nutrient absorption, temperature regulation, and waste elimination. Staying adequately hydrated is crucial for overall health.

It's important to remember that these values are approximations, and the nutritional content may vary based on the specific brands and types of ingredients used. Additionally, the fermentation process may introduce probiotics and alter the nutritional composition of the final dish.


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